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Africa is the third largest part of the world with 30 million square kilometers - it makes up around 22 percent of the total country area of ​​the world. It extends from 37 north latitude to 34 south latitude.


Africa is a land mass that is not very subdivided by indentations of the sea ​​and is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea , the Red Sea and the Suez Canal from Asia. Africa has a barely structured coast and few good ports.

The African continent is characterized by numerous different landscapes: the great desert landscape of the Sahara connects to the Atlas, the young fold mountains in the northwest. This is limited in the south by the Sudan basin. Basin landscapes and highlands lie in the southern part of Africa, and in the east also with rifts and volcanoes: Here lies the famous Kilimanjaro. The Cape Fold Mountains finally rise in the far south.

Large streams such as the Nile, Congo, Zambezi and Niger flow in the vast basins of the African continent. In East Africa there are also large lakes such as Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika or Lake Malawi.

Climate and vegetation

A distribution of the climate zones starting from the equator to the north and south is relatively uniform. The climate near the equator is tropical. Here you can find dense jungle with rain in all seasons. Subtropical regions adjoin the tropical rainforest to the north and south, which merge into tree grass steps, which are characterized by the alternation of rainy and dry seasons. These areas are followed by the continent's large arid regions in the north and south. In the dry regions there are grass plains and deserts (Kalahari, Sahara). Finally, there is a Mediterranean climate on the north and south coast of Africa. In the areas of the Atlas there are hardwoods, maquis and olive trees.

The animal world is very diverse: monkeys, elephants, hippos, crocodiles, snakes, lizards, birds and insects live in the jungle, antelopes, ostriches, giraffes, lions, elephants, rhinos, jackals, hyenas and leopards etc. live in the steppes


The population of Africa is not exactly known. Some of the figures differ considerably. According to Countryaah, the Africa has a population of 906 million (2004). Around six million of these are of European origin. In the north to the middle of the Sahara mainly European races (Arabs, Berbers, etc.) live, in the south mainly negrine races. Asian peoples also immigrated to the east. In the jungle there are still hunter and gathering tribes, while in North, East and South Africa there are more cattle breeders and nomad herders.

Most of the people in North Africa are Muslim. The Christian mission was successful in the other parts of the continent, mostly Christians live here. There are also early Christian communities (Copts) in Egypt and Ethiopia. Other beliefs such as animism, fetishism and totemism are also widespread.


The African rain forests have supplied large quantities of tropical timber to the European market. Especially on the Guinea coast in West Africa, much rainforest has been cleared. In addition to logging, clearings for plantations, small-scale farming, roads, urban growth and fuel have removed most of the forest. Also in East Africa (Ethiopia, Uganda) and Madagascar, large forest areas have been cleared. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the largest of the remaining rainforest areas is found (1 million km2).

The deforestation gives way to soil erosion in connection with heavy rainfall and runoff, and certain tropical soil types are converted to gold laterite when exposed to precipitation of iron minerals in the surface.

Most of the energy used for cooking is derived from firewood and charcoal, and in many areas the consumption of wood is greater than the growth of trees. This can also cause erosion problems and spot desertification. As modern energy supply is largely undeveloped in rural and urban slums, it is not possible to replace the fuel with fossil fuels. Several aid projects support the development of renewable energy sources, streamline logging efficiency and tree planting.

African Forests

The savannah

The savannah areas are home to the large, well-known African mammals such as elephant, giraffe, rhino, zebra and lion. Here, nature is adapted to the change between rainy and dry times. Population growth has meant an initial cultivation of the savannah's outer areas; plant growth and soil erosion are increased and some animal species are threatened by hunting pressure.

Especially in East Africa, which has a particularly rich animal and plant life, large savannah areas have been protected to counteract these threats. One consequence is that the original residents are excluded, which in particular has caused problems for the nomads when traditional grazing land has been laid out for national parks.

Africa savannah areas

Countries in Africa
  1. Algeria
  2. Angola
  3. Benin
  4. Botswana
  5. Burkina Faso
  6. Burundi
  7. Cameroon
  8. Cabo Verde
  9. Central African Republic
  10. Chad
  11. Comoros
  12. Democratic Republic of the Congo
  13. Djibouti
  14. Egypt
  15. Equatorial Guinea
  16. Eritrea
  17. Eswatini
  18. Ethiopia
  19. Gabon
  20. Gambia
  21. Ghana
  22. Guinea
  23. Guinea-Bissau
  24. Ivory Coast
  25. Kenya
  26. Lesotho
  27. Liberia
  28. Libya
  29. Madagascar
  30. Malawi
  31. Mali
  32. Mauritania
  33. Mauritius
  34. Morocco
  35. Mozambique
  36. Namibia
  37. Niger
  38. Nigeria
  39. Republic of the Congo
  40. Rwanda
  41. Sao Tome and Principe
  42. Senegal
  43. Seychelles
  44. Sierra Leone
  45. Somalia
  46. South Africa
  47. South Sudan
  48. Sudan
  49. Tanzania
  50. Togo
  51. Tunisia
  52. Uganda
  53. Western Sahara
  54. Zambia
  55. Zimbabwe

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