Denmark. When Sweden introduced ID checks against Denmark
after New Year to reduce the influx of refugees, Denmark
responded with similar border checks against Germany.
In January, the parliament voted for stricter asylum
laws, including longer waiting times for family
reunification, stricter requirements for permanent residence
permits and reduced grants. Most debate aroused the
so-called jewelery proposal, which gave the police the
opportunity to seize asylum seekers' valuables and money to
pay for their living in Denmark. The government got through
the proposal when it was amended so that items of affection
value, such as wedding rings and personal jewelry, could not
In February, a government crisis erupted when the
Conservative People's Party expressed distrust of Left's
Environment Minister Eva Kjer Hansen. She was accused of
leaving the Folketing behind the light.
countryaah, the current population of Denmark is 5,792,213.
The opposition wanted a vote of no confidence in the Folketing, but Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen defended
his colleague and threatened to announce new elections.
After hard negotiations, Løkke Rasmussen was allowed to
resign and dismissed the disputed minister. New Minister for
the Environment was Esben Lunde Larsen.
In March, the government decided to step up the Danish
military effort against the Islamic State (IS) extremist
group in Iraq and to enter Syria as well. 400 soldiers would
be sent to both countries and Danish fighter and transport
aircraft could also be joined by the US-led coalition.
In April, four men in Copenhagen were arrested on
suspicion of committing terrorist offenses in Syria. They
were accused of joining the terrorist group IS with the
intention of committing terrorist acts.
At the NATO Summit in Warsaw in July, Prime Minister
Løkke Rasmussen announced that Denmark would send up to 200
soldiers to the NATO force planned for deployment in
Estonia, at NATO's border with the Russian Federation.
Two editors in the newspaper Se og Hør were sentenced in
August to conditional prison sentences and community
service, while the magazine's owners were fined SEK 10
million. The newspaper had bought information about
celebrity card payments. Among the 135 people involved were
Prince Joachim, Prime Minister Løkke Rasmussen and actor
In August, the Left government presented a plan to
further tighten refugee policy. This included the
possibility of rejecting asylum seekers at the border. At
the same time, stricter penalties for begging were proposed,
from warning to imprisonment for 14 days at the first
In November, Løkke Rasmussen declared that he wanted to
broaden his one-party government - Venstre had only 34 of
the Folketing's 179 seats. He invited the Liberal Alliance
and Conservative People's Party parties to negotiations and
formed a tripartite government. Foreign Minister Kristian
Jensen (Venstre) became new Minister of Finance and the
EU-critical LA leader Anders Samuelsen took over as Foreign
1993-2001 Social Democratic crisis policy
Only in January 1993, the bourgeois government had lost
its breath after being hit by the Tamil scandal of illegal
expulsion of Tamil refugees. Before then, Social Democracy
had to change its chair to become the rooms for government
formation with the radical left. For the first time in the
party's history, its chairman was overthrown when Poul Nyrup
Rasmussen the year before overthrew the incumbent chairman,
Svend Auken, at an extraordinarily convened congress.
Another reason for the change of government was the
desire to secure Danish Yes to the Maastricht
Treaty. On 2 June 1992, 50.7% had rejected the Maastricht
Treaty, thus halting all Union development in the EU. In
December, SF and the Social Democratic Party agreed to adopt
the "national compromise" with four reservations about the
development of the Union, but the bourgeoisie also
considered the need for a Social Democratic government to
knock the Social Democratic doubters in place. Managed. At
the May 18 election, 57% voted in favor of the treaty.
Social democratic politics throughout the 1990's were
characterized by reforms and improvements after 11 years of
civilian offensive, but also by new austerity measures and
cuts. Emissions from the labor market continued until
1997-98, reaching 900,000. In 1998, the government ran out
of promises to retain early retirement, and at the same
time, cuts in social and health care continued. The left
wing does not represent a clear alternative and many social
democratic voters have therefore been sought out on the far
right by the xenophobic Danish People's Party, which plays
on the dissatisfaction with the deterioration of the welfare
state. succeeded the Social Democracy together with the
radicals to preserve government power with the support of 90
out of the 179 members of the Parliament. After the party's
partial abandonment of early retirement at the end of the
year, its support dropped to 22% - the lowest level since
the turn of the century.
Despite a partial boom in the period 1994-98, the party
failed to combine crisis management and safeguarding the
weakest groups in society. On the contrary, it stated
publicly that its welfare policy could no longer guarantee
the weakest groups in society.
Copenhagen - geology
Copenhagen rests on a subsoil of limestone with flint layers, which in many
places is found approx. 10 m below street level. The limestone is deposited
in Danian (for 65-60 million. Years ago), and its thickness is approximately 100
m. The lower half of the layer series consists mainly of bryozoan lime, the
upper of Copenhagen lime, a sandy limestone of very varying hardness. In this
limestone subsoil, several construction works have been carried out,
e.g. several tunnels under the harbor. In some places there is a few meters
thick deposit of green sand on top of the lime from Zealand (about 60-57 million
years before now). In the calcareous subsoil there are traces of crustal
displacements, faults. One of the most significant is the so-called
Carlsberg fault; it extends in the direction NW-SE and with a vertical
displacement of more than 50 m. The crustal displacements took place after
Denmark and before the ice age.
During the ice age, the surface of the limestone was eroded by glaciers,
which left scouring strips, and a 10-15 m thick cover layer of moraine and
meltwater deposits was deposited. From the time after the ice age, in some
places there are bog deposits and deposits from the Litorina Sea in addition to
man-made backfill layers, which in places reach thicknesses of 5-10 m.
Copenhagen - architecture
The great fires of the 18th century and the British bombing of the British in
1807 have cleared so many of the city's old buildings that Copenhagen can only
have very few houses built before the 17th century.
The oldest secular example is the Consistory building in the University's
courtyard at Frue Plads, which is the last remnant of the Roskilde bishop's
Copenhagen residence, built approx. 1420
Older, however, is the Church of the Holy Spirit, which originally dates from
the 14th century; at the same time as the Consistory building is the later much
rebuilt St. Petri Church.
The Holy Spirit House, which forms the west wing of a former monastery, dates
from the late 15th century. Large parts of the street network date back to the
Middle Ages. While Absalom was still alive, the city center was moved to the
east, and the construction of Our Lady's Church began around 1200.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, several of the city's churches were
changed. The still standing tower (1582-91) from Nikolaj Church represents the
From the right-wing renaissance, a few townhouses have been preserved within
the area of the medieval town, eg mayor Matthias Hansens Gård on Amagertorv
(1616) and Magstræde 17-19 (ca. 1640).
Copenhagen is rich in large, public buildings from the time of Christian IV,
including Holmen's Church, Børsen, Regensen, Rosenborg Castle and Trinitatis
Church with Round Tower; all are marked by the king's predilection for Dutch
Christian IV founded the new district Christianshavn in 1618 to protect the
opposite galley harbor. The completed harbor is today a garden at the Royal
Library (built 1898-1906 by Hans J. Holm), and the surrounding buildings still
consist of Tøjhuset and Proviantgården from the time around 1600.
The king expanded the city with New Copenhagen, which includes Nyboder (1631
ff.). The art chamber building, built 1665-73 by Albert Mathiesen (d. 1668), is
one of the city's earliest baroque buildings; today it contains the National
Around the town's new royal square, Kongens Nytorv, which was paved in
1670, are two of the noble palaces of the time, Charlottenborg, built 1672-83,
and Thott's Palace (1683-86). Almost at the same time, Lambert van
Haven built Our Savior's Church in Christianshavn in Dutch Baroque style.
From the time around 1700, Frederiksberg Castle dates, built in two rounds
by Frederik IV and inspired by northern Italian baroque villas, as well as the
Opera House (1701-02) in Fredericiagade, which today houses the Eastern High
After the fire in 1728, the city was rebuilt. The concept of fire house dates
from these years; the type, a foundation-walled longhouse with gable twig, was
designed by JC Krieger, but is known from the late 1600's.
In 1731, Christian VI demolished the old fortified Copenhagen Castle and
had Elias David Häusser begin the construction of Christiansborg; The riding
arena facility was spared by the castle fires in 1794 and 1884.
Opposite the castle, Niels Eigtved built the Prince's Palace (1743-44, today
the National Museum).
Northeast of the old town, from 1749 the district Frederiksstaden was
built in the Franco-Saxon Rococo style. It was Niels Eigtved who gave drawings
for both citizens' houses and the four noble palaces that, after the castle fire
in 1794, formed the royal residence Amalienborg, as the Colonnade connected two
of the mansions.
It was built by CF Harsdorff, who in 1779-80 built his own house on Kongens
Nytorv as a pattern for the citizens' houses of the future. After the town's
fire in 1795, the types became common; to facilitate the maneuvering of the fire
extinguishers in the narrow town, it became obligatory to "break" the corners of
the buildings. Harsdorff's student CF Hansen was summoned after the teacher's
death in 1799 to Copenhagen to lead the reconstruction of Christiansborg
Castle and the Council and Court House (1805-15) on Nytorv.
After the bombing in 1807, CF Hansen was given the task of rebuilding Our
Lady's Church. Although the castle fire of 1884 destroyed Christiansborg,
the Castle Church is still restored after a fire in 1992 as an example of CF
Hansen's Roman-inspired classicism; the rest of the castle was newly built
1906-28 by Thorvald Jørgensen. Large parts of the city center are also
characterized by civic houses from the first three decades of the 1800's.
Gottlieb Bindesbøll demonstrated the new knowledge of the time about the
polychrome ancient architecture with Thorvaldsens Museum (1839-48). As a
practical result of the cholera epidemic in 1853, he built from 1854 the Medical
Association's Homes (Brumleby) with air and space around the lengths.
After the closure of the city gates and the abolition of the ramparts, the
ramparts and the "bridges" were expanded explosively during the second half of
the 1800's. One of the first constructions between the ramparts and the lakes
was Christian Hansen's Municipal Hospital (1859-63).
The fleet's old area became the residential area Gammelholm, whose facade
towards Kongens Nytorv consists of the Royal Theater, built 1872-74 by Vilhelm
Dahlerup and Ove Petersen.
In Frederiksstaden, Ferdinand Meldahl completed the Frederikskirken (Marble
Church) in Renaissance style (1874-94). In the 1890's, new museum buildings
sprang up, eg the Statens Museum for Kunst (1888-95) by Vilhelm Dahlerup and
Georg Møller and the Glyptoteket (1890-92) also by Dahlerup.
The city center was moved to the west with the construction of Martin
Nyrop's town hall, which was inaugurated in 1905. The Italian-inspired building
became the cornerstone of the national romanticism, replaced by a neoclassicism,
born of the fierce controversy over brewer Carl Jacobsen's offer to add a
baroque spire to The tower of Our Lady's Church.
A striking example of this Classicism intransigence is police headquarters,
built from 1918 by Hack Kampmann, Aage Rafn and others. Quite different in its
anchoring in the Danish church tradition is PV Jensen-Klint's Grundtvig
Church at Bispebjerg (1921-40); the son Kaare Klint rebuilt together with others
Frederiks Hospital from the 1700's, to the Museum of Art and Design (1921-26).
Around 1930, functionalism made its entrance into Copenhagen with Edvard
Thomsen's "Lagkagehus" on Christianshavns Torv (1928-34). In Klampenborg, Arne
Jacobsen built Bellevue Strandbad, the Bellavista residential building and the
Bellevue Theater in the white functional style in the 1930's, while Vilhelm
Lauritzen built Kastrup Airport (1937-39) and the Radio House (1937-41).
School construction flourished in these years; a prominent example is The
School by the Sound (1937) by Kaj Gottlob.
In the post-war years, the new residential area at Bellahøj was built with
modern point houses, and Arne Jacobsen built the city's first "American
skyscraper", SAS Royal Hotel (1956-61).
In the 1960's and 1970's, Greater Copenhagen was expanded according to
the Finger Plan with a number of large residential buildings, including High
Gladsaxe from the 1960's by Hoff & Windinge et al. The public construction in the
1970's and 1980's has been extensive.
It included many churches in the outer Copenhagen areas, such as I. and J.
Exner's Islev Church (1968-69) and Vangede Church (1974-76) by JO von
At Christianshavn, Halldor Gunnløgsson and Jørn Nielsen built the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs (1977-80), opposite at Gammelholm, Arne Jacobsen added the new
Nationalbank (built 1965-78), and at Frederiksberg, Henning Larsen built the
Business School with the adjacent housing Dalgas Have (1985-91).
Examples of construction in recent years include Arkitekternes Hus in
Strandgade by Nielsen, Nielsen & Nielsen (1996) and the expansion of the Royal
Library (1997-98) by Schmidt, Hammer & Lassen.
Construction around 2000 in Copenhagen is particularly concentrated around
the harbor. In the north of Kalkbrænderihavnen, Jørn Utzon's design
studio built Paustians Møbelhus in 1987, which has been neighborhooded by a
sailing club (1999) and domiciled by the Employers' Association for Trade,
Transport and Service (2000).
In 1997-99, the headquarters of Unibank (Nordea) were built in the area by
Christianskirken in Christianshavn. Most new buildings by the harbor are company
domiciles, so so far there has been very little space for homes such as Schmidt,
Hammer & Lassen's residential buildings Capella Kaj on India Kaj (1999).
Between Holmen and Frederiksstaden, the Royal Theatre's new opera building,
the Opera in axis with Amalienborg and the Marble Church, was inaugurated in
2005. Opposite at Kvæsthusbroen opened in 2008 the theatre's new theater,
designed by Boje Lundgaard and Lene Tranberg.
South of Langebro, the large shopping center Fisketorvet (2000), a hotel and
several office buildings have been built at Kalvebod Brygge, among
others. Nykredit's headquarters (1998-2001) at Schmidt, Hammer & Lassen. The
Havneholmen district behind Fisketorvet was started by the Port of Copenhagen in
2005 and will house exclusive homes.
At Havneholmen, a swing bridge over the harbor to Islands Brygge was
inaugurated in 2006, intended for pedestrians and cyclists. The violent
dimensions of the buildings at this site and the fact that an overall city plan
seems to be lacking leave a vague cityscape.
The new district Ørestad has been under construction on Amager since the
1990's. Green breathing holes and canals, together with changing settlements,
must help to create a city where the human scale is dominant. To the north,
closest to Njalsgade, the first stage of a new building for the Royal Palace was
completed. Library in 1997; the total work is expected to be completed in 2008.
In 2002, the first stage of the expansion of the University of Copenhagen
Amager was taken into use (see KUA). Danmarks Radio's new concert hall in DR
Byen designed by the French architect Jean Nouvel will be taken into use in