USA. Of the twelve Republican candidates ahead of this
fall's presidential election, which was included when the
primary election began in February, seven withdrew from the
first month already. Quite immediately, Donald Trump emerged
as the leading candidate, even though he was contentious
even within the party. In May, it was clear that Trump won
In the Democratic primary elections, Bernie Sanders
became a more difficult contender for the favorite-tipped
Hillary Clinton than many expected. According to
countryaah, the current population of United States is 331,002,662.
professional politician, above all, attracted young voters.
It was only when all the primary elections were held in June
that he put down his campaign and expressed his support for
Clinton in the election.
Ahead of the July party convention, Republicans appointed
Indiana Governor Mike Pence as vice presidential candidate,
while Democrats appointed Virginia Senator Tim Kaine. During
the fall, most polls pointed to Clinton's victory in the
Nov. 8 election, despite the disclosure that she, as
Secretary of State, used a private mail server, in violation
of the rules, as well as allegations of too close ties with
the financial elite on Wall Street.
At the same time, several leading Republicans sharply
distanced themselves from Trump, who appeared to be
incalculable, ignorant and rude, and who made racist, sexist
and false statements. Among a number of controversies were
verbal attacks on a Muslim man whose son fell into the U.S.
Army, a disastrous death threat to Clinton, hint that the
United States would not live up to its commitments within
NATO, and allegations that Obama and Clinton founded the
terrorist state Islamic State (IS).
In the Nov. 9 election, surprisingly, Trump won with 306
electoral votes against Clinton for 232. However, she
received just over 2.5 million more votes. In the
contemporary congressional elections, Republicans retained
their majority even though they backed slightly in both
Trump continued to cheer for his supporters and disgust
among detractors, not least through his nominations for top
posts where many belonged to the financial elite or were
generals but lacked political experience.
After the election, intelligence agencies reported that
the Russian Federation was actively working for a victory
for Trump, including through hacker attacks against the
Democrats. Trump dismissed the information, but President
Obama expelled 35 Russian diplomats just before New Year and
imposed some sanctions in protest of the data breach.
The Supreme Court was a judge short almost all year. When
Judge Antonin Scalia died suddenly in February, the
possibility was opened that the balance of power in the
court would tip over from the favor of the Conservatives to
the Liberals. But the Republican-dominated Senate refused to
even discuss the nominee presented by President Barack
Obama. As a result, Scalia's place remained vacant
throughout the year and the court could not decide questions
where there was an even weight between the eight judges.
When Obama went to Cuba in March, it was the first time
since 1928 that an American president visited the country.
In May, he visited Hiroshima in Japan, becoming the first US
president at the site of the first nuclear bomb 71 years
In June, 49 people were killed when a man opened fire at
a gay club in Orlando, Florida in what was described as the
worst mass shooting in US history. The perpetrator who was
shot dead himself had sworn allegiance to the terrorism IS
just before the act.
The debate over disproportionate police violence against
African Americans gained new fuel after two almost
simultaneous incidents in July where one man was shot dead
in Louisiana and one in Minnesota. Police officers'
vulnerable position came into focus when a black war veteran
the day after the Minnesota shooting killed five police
officers in Texas, and just over a week after that, a black
Navy veteran shot dead three police officers in Louisiana.
A disputed law was passed which meant that relatives of
victims of the September 11 attacks in 2001 were given the
opportunity to sue Saudi Arabia, from where 15 of the 19
aircraft came. Obama tried to stop the law, which he claimed
created a dangerous precedent, but he was voted down by
Congress. It was Obama's twelfth veto and the first to be
Resistance to the construction of an oil pipeline in
North Dakota grew into the largest protest action among
Indigenous people in the United States in modern times.
Residents of the Sioux Reserve Standing Rock set up a
protest camp in April and eventually joined other indigenous
people as well as environmental and activist groups. The
protesters claimed that the management threatened a water
source and invaded places sacred to the Sioux people. In
September, the protests turned into violent clashes with
police using tear gas, rubber bullets and water cannons. In
December, a federal government stopped building. Many
cheered while others thought the stop was temporary.
1993-2001 Democrats back in power
The crisis was the main reason why an unprecedented
Arkansas governor defeated Bush in November 1992. Bill
Clinton won the presidential election by promising voters
jobs, economic progress, reducing the tax burden for
low-income groups and implementing health care reform.
However, the reform was voted down in Congress in 1994.
With the crisis, xenophobia in the United States also
increased. In 1994, in a referendum, California decided that
children of illegal immigrants should not be entitled to
education in the future, and in 1995-97 several states
decided to abolish minority groups' right to public
employment and access to public contracts - the so-called
"Affirmative Action" programs.
During the same period, the country's prison service
expanded dramatically. The crisis had increased the number
of offenses, prisons were overcrowded and steps were now
being taken to build new prisons and expand existing ones.
About half of all young African-American men were either in
jail, or had been inside. The punishments had severe social
and ethnic impact. The African and Latin American population
was clearly over-represented. A total of 1.7 million North
Americans are currently in prison - and that number is on
At the same time, the number of prisoners on prison staff
deaths increased. After decades of pause in the execution of
death sentences, the United States had once again begun to
execute its own citizens in 1976. In the late 1990's, almost
3,000 prisoners were sitting on the death row of the prisons
awaiting the final verdict of the authorities. The most
prominent of these was Mumia Abu Jamal. An African-American
journalist who, with his reports, had been a thorn in the
eyes of the authorities in Philadelphia and who had been
charged and sentenced to death for the murder of a police
officer. Despite widespread international protests and a
campaign by Amnesty International against the death
sentences of the United States, executions continued,
reaching 80 executions in 1997, a preliminary highlight.
The economy improved and unemployment fell during
Clinton's first presidential term (1993-97), but not without
significant social costs. Working hours increased and wages
fell drastically among the low-paid. The United States
developed a new concept: "Working poor", referring to the
phenomenon that even through work, the poorest part of the
population could no longer keep the poverty rate low. At the
same time, the Clinton administration drastically reduced
the state's social assistance programs. It was one of the
contributing reasons why the Democrats lost the majority in
Congress for the first time in 40 years in the 1994 midterm
elections. At the same time, the extreme right wing
increased its organization. One example of this was the
terrorist bombing in 1995 against a federal building in
Oklahoma that cost over 200 lives.
During a period marked by rising social turbulence
internally in the United States, Clinton sought to
strengthen his position through foreign policy initiatives.
After allowing the civil war to rage in former Yugoslavia
for four years and causing the EU's foreign policy project
to suffer shipwreck, in the fall of 1995, the United States
intervened and forced the Dayton Agreement in December to
force the warring parties to make peace. In October 96,
negotiations were held between Palestine and Israel in
Washington with the Clinton administration as the mediator,
and the following month Clinton was re-elected for a second
In January 1998, the so-called Monica Lewinsky scandal
broke out, which, as protagonists, had the president, a
student intern at the White House and a cigar. The sex
scandal was supposed to be the main weapon on the part of
Republicans to bolster their majority in Congress at the
November 98 midterm elections and pave the way for a
Republican president in 2001, but instead, Republicans
suffered a staggering defeat. They took revenge by suing
Clinton for a state court, and Clinton at the last minute,
with a swift attack on Iraq, tried to stave off this
development. The country's political establishment
was in deep crisis and the economy was in crisis following
the crisis's development first in Southeast Asia and then in
Russia and Brazil.
However, the Supreme Court which was set in February 1999
was unable to convict the president. The charge of perjury
fell by 55 to 45 votes, and the charge of obstruction of
justice fell by 50 to 50 votes. To cast the president, a 2/3
majority in the Senate was required.
The conflict with Cuba caught fire again in November 1999
due to boy Elián González, the only survivor of a shipwreck.
His mother, along with others, had tried to reach Miami for
asylum. The North American judiciary and ultimately the
Justice Department decided the boy should be sent back to
his father in Cuba, but were thwarted by exile Cubans in
Miami and Republicans led by Dan Burton, who had helped
write the Helms-Burton law that expanded the blockade
against Cuba. Burton proposed in Congress that the boy be
granted North American citizenship - in order to prevent his
return to his father.
In 2000, economic growth continued - the longest last in
US history. In 1996, a new social welfare system had been
introduced, unemployment was falling, wages were rising, and
at the same time the number of families dependent on social
assistance was falling. Yet, economic growth did not help to
create greater equality or reduce social divisions. The gap
between rich and poor was growing, and middle-income groups
The presidential election in the United States on
November 7, 2000 and the subsequent quarrels over the
election decision became one of the most tumultuous in the
country's history. Vice President, Democrat Al Gore got the
most votes, approx. ˝ million more than the counterpart,
Republican George W. Bush, who was governor of Texas and son
of former President George Bush. But because of the election
system in the United States, the winner of a state gets all
the voting votes in that state. The result in one state
could therefore be decisive, and in Florida there was a dead
run between the two candidates. Out of 6 million votes,
there were only a few hundred differences. The state's 25
electoral votes would be crucial to the outcome of the
While Democrats sought to get the vote in Florida,
Republicans sought to halt the vote because Bush won the
election on the first count. The election evolved into a
legal and political farce, and in the end, the United States
Supreme Court - which has a Republican majority - decided
that the recount should be stopped. Bush thus became the
winner of the election.