The main watershed separating the basins of the North, Baltic and Black Seas passes through the Czech territory. The main river axes are in Bohemia the Elbe (370 km) with the Vltava (433 km), in Moravia the Morava river (246 km) with the Dyjí (306 km) and in Silesia the Odra (135 km) with the Opava (131 km).
From a physical-geographic point of view, the Czechia lies on the border of two mountain systems. The western and central part of the Czech Republic is filled by the Czech highlands, which mainly have the character of hilly and central mountains (Šumava, Český les, Ore Mountains, Krkonoše, Eagle Mountains, Jeseníky Mountains). The Western Carpathians (Beskydy) extend into the eastern part of the country.
According to Countries and Exchange Rates, the climate of the Czech Republic is characterized by the interpenetration and mixing of oceanic and continental influences. It is characterized by a westerly flow with a predominance of westerly winds, intense cyclonic activity and relatively abundant rainfall. The coastal influence is manifested mainly in Bohemia, Moravia, and in Silesia continental climatic influences are increasing. Altitude and relief have a great influence on the climate of the Czech Republic. Of the total area of the state territory, 52,817 km2 (67%) lies at an altitude of up to 500 m, 25,222 km2 (32%) at an altitude of 500 to 1,000 m and only 827 km2 (1.05%) at an altitude above 1,000 m. The average altitude is 430 m.
Also, the flora and fauna found in the territory of the Czech Republic testify to the mutual penetration of the main directions by which flora and fauna spread in Europe. Forests, mainly coniferous, occupy 33% of the total area of the country.
The soil cover is also characterized by considerable variability. The most widespread type of soil in the Czech Republic is brown soil.
The length of the western common border of the Czech Republic with Germany is 810.7 km, of which 453.9 km with Saxony and 356.8 km with Bavaria. The common southern border with Austria is 466.1 km long, with Slovakia in the east 251.8 km and with Poland in the north 761.8 km, according to Polish data 789.89 km.
The Czechia has one of the most stable and prosperous economies of all post-communist countries. During the 1990s, there were fundamental changes in ownership relations – small and large privatization, restitution, restructuring and technological modernization, made possible both by domestic loans and especially by the opening of the country and the influx of foreign investments.
After the initial expansion, the Czech economy succumbed to a small recession, from which it recovered from the middle of 1999. Growth in 2000-2001 was mainly caused by exports to the EU, especially to Germany, further inflow of foreign investments and reviving domestic demand.
High budget deficits and growing national debt can cause a big problem in the future. The unfinished privatization of state-owned enterprises is also facing difficulties. Changes in legislation and especially in the judiciary are also unfinished.
The key mineral resources mined in the Czech Republic include black and brown coal. Oil and natural gas, kaolin or building materials are also mined on a small scale. Agricultural production almost meets domestic demand. Mainly grain (wheat, barley, corn), potatoes, sugar beet, vegetables, flax and rapeseed are grown. Growing hops, orchards and viticulture are also important. The basis of animal production is the breeding of cattle, pigs and poultry, as well as beekeeping or the breeding of freshwater fish (especially carp).
Thermal power plants (75%) and nuclear power plants (Temelín and Dukovany) are the basis of the energy industry. The main industrial centers are Prague, Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen. Important branches of industry include metallurgy, engineering, the textile industry, the food industry, the electrical industry and the production of means of transport. The most dynamically developing industry is construction.
The Czechia has a dense transport network. Telecommunications is developing rapidly. In recent years, foreign trade has had a passive balance, given mainly by the import of fuels and modern technologies, which is balanced by high incomes from tourism.