India is a federal union of 29 states and 7 union territories. The country is governed by the Constitution of India, which is the supreme law of the land. India has a multi-party system, with numerous political parties and alliances. The government structure is based on Westminster model, wherein the executive branch consists of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers at the national level, and Chief Ministers and their respective Councils of Ministers at the state level. The Indian Parliament consists of two houses: Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and Lok Sabha (Lower House). The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and holds office for five years or until his/her party loses majority in Parliament. Visit COUNTRYAAH for a list of countries that start with letter I.
The current Prime Minister is Narendra Modi, who was elected in 2014 from Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). BJP currently leads a coalition government with Shiv Sena as its main ally. Other major political parties include Indian National Congress (INC), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Communist Party of India (CPI), Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) etc.
India has seen many changes since independence in 1947, with much progress made towards achieving key goals like poverty reduction, improved public health care, education reform etc. However India still faces many challenges such as high levels of corruption, inequality between states etc which need to be addressed to achieve sustainable growth in future. Overall however India has made significant strides towards becoming a modern democracy and continues to strive for betterment in all areas.
India. An attack on an Indian airbase on the border with Pakistan in January shook the Indian defense and disrupted an initial icing with the neighboring country. At least seven Indian soldiers and four attackers were killed. Only after four days did the army secure the Pathankot base in the state of Punjab, which raised questions about its capability.
According to countryaah, the current population of India is 1,380,004,396. India accused the Jaish-e-Mohammad separatist movement based in Pakistan for the act. Pakistan promised to investigate the suspects and also sent investigators to India. New Delhi unsuccessfully tried to get the separatist movement’s leader Masood Azhar stamped as a terrorist by the UN. China, which has good ties with Pakistan, was opposed.
During the year, the Kashmir conflict escalated. Fire strikes across the India-Pakistan border demanded several deaths on both sides. According to thereligionfaqs, Indian allies also fought battles with suspected separatists. In Jammu and Kashmir’s capital Srinagar and other parts of the state, curfews were announced following violent clashes between protesters and security forces. Protest strikes occurred and local media were sometimes banned. Relations with Pakistan were further strained in September when 18 Indian soldiers were killed in an attack on an army base in Uri, west of Srinagar. Prime Minister Narendra Modi and others in the government accused Pakistan of participating in cross-border terrorism.
Jammu and Kashmir got their first female leader in April when Mehboda Sayeed of the PDP (Democratic People’s Party) succeeded his late father as the head of state.
In October, India hosted a summit for the emerging economies of the BRICS group, including China and the Russian Federation. India was not heard to condemn two named groups in Pakistan, but the final communication condemned terror. During the meeting, the procurement of the Russian air defense system S-400 and four Russian frigates were announced. Modi and President Vladimir Putin also agreed on energy agreements. Russian oil company Rosneft expanded its operations in India during the year.
- Abbreviation Finder: Check to see how the 3-letter abbreviation of IND stands for the nation of India in geography.
Modi visited Iran in May and agreed to invest half a billion dollars in a deep-sea port in Chabahar on the Persian Gulf. In the long term, countries in Central Asia may have transport alternatives to Pakistan.
The Indian economy continued to show strong growth. In the third quarter, which ended in September, GDP increased by 7.3%. Growth, however, was expected to halt because of the government’s surprising and contentious decision in November to annul all 500 and 1,000 rupee notes. These denominations constituted the majority of banknotes in circulation. Chaotic queues arose outside banks and exchange offices as many Indians are often paid cash. The government justified the decision with the need to fight tax fraud and other financial crime. Falling growth is a rate cut likely next year. In September, Urjit Patel took over as Governor of the Central Bank.
Modi’s government got through its proposal to introduce a uniform national tax on goods and services, which was termed a major tax reform. It was unclear what tax rate would apply and whether it would be in place when the new fiscal year begins in April 2017.
India, the world’s third largest greenhouse gas emissions country, approved the climate agreement signed in October in Paris in October.
Problems with air pollution were noted during the year. The World Health Organization WHO estimates that 600,000 people die prematurely in India as a result. In November, hundreds of schools were closed in New Delhi’s capital for several days because of the dangerous air. A ban was imposed on burning straw in the fields. Vehicle traffic and construction were also limited to reduce the presence of extremely small dust particles that contribute to health problems.
In November, at least 148 people were killed in a train crash in the state of Uttar Pradesh, the country’s worst since 2010.
In a temple fire in the southern state of Kerala, more than 100 people died in April when an elapsed firework piece ignited a fireworks store and triggered a major fire. There was no permit for the fireworks.
Severe drought and a heatwave hit up to 330 million people in April and May. Over 300 died in the states of Odisha, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Temperatures were sometimes above 45 degrees. In May, an Indian heat record of 51 degrees was recorded in the city of Phaladi in the state of Rajasthan.
In December, the state of Tamil Nadu’s popular head of government Jayaram Jayalalithaa died. The former film star became the leader of the AIADMK regional party in 1989 and was elected head of state four times, despite being forced to step down twice after bribery charges.