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Iran

Yearbook 2016

Iran. Most of the international sanctions against Iran were lifted in January after the UN nuclear agency IAEA confirmed that the country fulfilled its commitments under the agreement reached in 2015 on the country's nuclear program. The deal would diminish Iran's ability to acquire nuclear weapons, something Tehran has always said it has no plans for. Now the country was once again able to sell oil on the world market and gained access to about $ 100 billion which has been frozen in foreign accounts.

2016 Iran

However, the United States retained some sanctions related, among other things, to Iran's support for terrorism, and introduced new ones after an Iranian robot test in the fall of 2015. This resulted in complaints from Tehran during the year that the promised benefits of the agreement failed when potential trading partners did not dare bet in Iran for fear of breaking US sanctions. Despite the International Monetary Fund (IMF) reporting in October, Iran's economy recovered rapidly and oil exports were almost back to pre-sanctions levels. Then, however, the presidential election in the United States raised concerns when controversial winner Donald Trump said the nuclear deal could be torn down.

Ahead of the parliamentary and Expert Assembly elections in February, the Conservative Guardian Council rejected several thousand openly reform-minded candidates who signed up. It was criticized by, among others, President Hassan Rohani and by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, President 1989-97. The criticism contributed to the re-evaluation of nearly 1,500 candidates a few weeks before the election and was now approved.

According to countryaah, the current population of Iran is 83,992,960. The election was a great success for reformists and moderate candidates, while the Conservative camp suffered a defeat. This was true in Parliament, in May, and in the Expert Assembly, where reform-friendly candidates won a majority of the 88 seats. The composition of the expert assembly was particularly important as the members are elected for eight years and have the task of appointing the new highest leader in the country after Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who was 76 years old and sickly.

Iran Population

Rohani cited the election result as confirmation that his policies that led to reduced international isolation for Iran were successful.

At the beginning of the year, Iran ended up in a diplomatic conflict with Sunni Muslims after a Shiite leader was executed in Saudi Arabia. The execution led to protesters in Tehran storming the Saudi embassy and setting it on fire. Ayatolla Khamenei warned of divine revenge. Saudi Arabia responded by breaking diplomatic relations, and several Sunni Muslim countries, mainly on the Arabian Peninsula, followed and broke or severed relations. The Arab League condemned Iran in a special summons.

The conflict with the arch-rival Saudi Arabia also intensified with the aftermath of the congestion disaster at the annual pilgrimage, hajj, 2015. After the countries failed to agree on arrangements for Iranian participation in this year's pilgrimage, Iran decided on boycott. In September, Khamenei called the Saudi royal house "vicious" and questioned its role as administrator of Islam's holy places of Mecca and Medina. The Saudi Grand Mufti countered by claiming that Iranians are not real Muslims.

Saudi Arabia continued to fight on the government's side in Yemen, while Iran continued to deny its support for the Shiite Muslim rebels there. The United States claimed during the year that several arms deliveries from Iran were halted to the rebels.

Tehran

Tehran, (Pers. Tehrān), Iran's capital and most populous province; 8.15 million input (2011); 15.23 million in the metropolitan area. The town is situated at a height of 1000 m on a sloping plateau below the Elburz Mountains, which separates the city from the Caspian Sea.

In a Middle Eastern perspective, the history of Tehran is short, as it simply goes back to 1000-t. During the Qajard dynasty in the 1700's. the city became the capital, and palace and city facilities were expanded with, among other things. an octagonal wall with 12 city gates. During the Pahlavid dynasty in the 1900's. urban development was strengthened, and the shah moved to northwestern Tehran, where palaces for the family were established in a large park, while the city was expanded to a modern metropolis with a distinctly western feel. Among other things. many neoclassical buildings were erected by western and exilussian architects. During the last shah and financed by the country's rising oil revenues, the city developed into a modern metropolis. The Shah commissioned several monumental and prestigious buildings, including Borj-e-Shahyad ('shah tribute tower'), which after 1979 was renamed Borj-e-Azadi ('Freedom Tower'). The road network was expanded, including with Kheabun-e-Vali-Ye-Asr, Tehran's famous avenue and one of the world's longest city streets. However, the pace of urban growth and lack of urban planning led to a chaotic development, with the outer neighborhoods in particular growing out of control.

Tehran was the center of the showdown with the Shah, and during the Islamic revolution, the city's students formed an important part of the vanguard. The war against Iraq (1980-88) led to considerable migrations within the country, and many settled in the capital. Also, many refugees from Afghanistan have come here. After 1979, the cityscape was characterized by murals with revolutionary motifs, Khomeini portraits and slogans besides the many women in black chador.

Tehran today appears as a modern metropolis, but without the history that can give a city character. In the 1990's, attempts were made to solve the major problems of traffic and other infrastructure; Among other things, thoroughfares were built with road tunnels, but the huge traffic continues to stop regularly. Large sums of money were also sacrificed on park sites and on - debated - the overpainting of the revolutionary paintings, but Tehran is still heavily plagued by air pollution, both due to traffic and the city's extensive industry. Especially in the summer, the city is regularly covered by a thick quilt of smog.

The construction of a metro network in the metropolis was already initiated under the Shah, but the first line, to the suburb of Mehrsharh, first opened in 1999. The first subway opened in 2000.

From the 1800's. are preserved remains of the shaher's residential district in the city center with the Golestan mansion as the main building. Immediately south of this is the large bazaar. In the 1930's, the Danish engineering firm Kampsax built Tehran's main railway station, while Jørn Utzon sm Hans Hans Munk Hansen (b. 1929) designed a building for the Iranian National Bank (1959-62). Among many museums, the most significant is the Archaeological Museum with collections from prehistoric times to the 1800's.

 

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