Iran. Most of the international sanctions against Iran
were lifted in January after the UN nuclear agency IAEA
confirmed that the country fulfilled its commitments under
the agreement reached in 2015 on the country's nuclear
program. The deal would diminish Iran's ability to acquire
nuclear weapons, something Tehran has always said it has no
plans for. Now the country was once again able to sell oil
on the world market and gained access to about $ 100 billion
which has been frozen in foreign accounts.
However, the United States retained some sanctions
related, among other things, to Iran's support for
terrorism, and introduced new ones after an Iranian robot
test in the fall of 2015. This resulted in complaints from
Tehran during the year that the promised benefits of the
agreement failed when potential trading partners did not
dare bet in Iran for fear of breaking US sanctions. Despite
the International Monetary Fund (IMF) reporting in October,
Iran's economy recovered rapidly and oil exports were almost
back to pre-sanctions levels. Then, however, the
presidential election in the United States raised concerns
when controversial winner Donald Trump said the nuclear deal
could be torn down.
Ahead of the parliamentary and Expert Assembly elections
in February, the Conservative Guardian Council rejected
several thousand openly reform-minded candidates who signed
up. It was criticized by, among others, President Hassan
Rohani and by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, President 1989-97.
The criticism contributed to the re-evaluation of nearly
1,500 candidates a few weeks before the election and was now
countryaah, the current population of Iran is 83,992,960.
The election was a great success for reformists and
moderate candidates, while the Conservative camp suffered a
defeat. This was true in Parliament, in May, and in the
Expert Assembly, where reform-friendly candidates won a
majority of the 88 seats. The composition of the expert
assembly was particularly important as the members are
elected for eight years and have the task of appointing the
new highest leader in the country after Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who was 76 years old and sickly.
Rohani cited the election result as confirmation that his
policies that led to reduced international isolation for
Iran were successful.
At the beginning of the year, Iran ended up in a
diplomatic conflict with Sunni Muslims after a Shiite leader
was executed in Saudi Arabia. The execution led to
protesters in Tehran storming the Saudi embassy and setting
it on fire. Ayatolla Khamenei warned of divine revenge.
Saudi Arabia responded by breaking diplomatic relations, and
several Sunni Muslim countries, mainly on the Arabian
Peninsula, followed and broke or severed relations. The Arab
League condemned Iran in a special summons.
The conflict with the arch-rival Saudi Arabia also
intensified with the aftermath of the congestion disaster at
the annual pilgrimage, hajj, 2015. After the countries
failed to agree on arrangements for Iranian participation in
this year's pilgrimage, Iran decided on boycott. In
September, Khamenei called the Saudi royal house "vicious"
and questioned its role as administrator of Islam's holy
places of Mecca and Medina. The Saudi Grand Mufti countered
by claiming that Iranians are not real Muslims.
Saudi Arabia continued to fight on the government's side
in Yemen, while Iran continued to deny its support for the
Shiite Muslim rebels there. The United States claimed during
the year that several arms deliveries from Iran were halted
to the rebels.
Tehran, (Pers. Tehrān), Iran's capital and most populous province; 8.15
million input (2011); 15.23 million in the metropolitan area. The town is
situated at a height of 1000 m on a sloping plateau below the Elburz Mountains,
which separates the city from the Caspian Sea.
In a Middle Eastern perspective, the history of Tehran is short, as it simply
goes back to 1000-t. During the Qajard dynasty in the 1700's. the city became the
capital, and palace and city facilities were expanded with, among other things.
an octagonal wall with 12 city gates. During the Pahlavid dynasty in the 1900's.
urban development was strengthened, and the shah moved to northwestern Tehran,
where palaces for the family were established in a large park, while the city
was expanded to a modern metropolis with a distinctly western feel. Among other
things. many neoclassical buildings were erected by western and exilussian
architects. During the last shah and financed by the country's rising oil
revenues, the city developed into a modern metropolis. The Shah commissioned
several monumental and prestigious buildings, including Borj-e-Shahyad ('shah
tribute tower'), which after 1979 was renamed Borj-e-Azadi ('Freedom Tower').
The road network was expanded, including with Kheabun-e-Vali-Ye-Asr, Tehran's
famous avenue and one of the world's longest city streets. However, the pace of
urban growth and lack of urban planning led to a chaotic development, with the
outer neighborhoods in particular growing out of control.
Tehran was the center of the showdown with the Shah, and during the Islamic
revolution, the city's students formed an important part of the vanguard. The
war against Iraq (1980-88) led to considerable migrations within the country,
and many settled in the capital. Also, many refugees from Afghanistan have come
here. After 1979, the cityscape was characterized by murals with revolutionary
motifs, Khomeini portraits and slogans besides the many women in black chador.
Tehran today appears as a modern metropolis, but without the history that can
give a city character. In the 1990's, attempts were made to solve the major
problems of traffic and other infrastructure; Among other things, thoroughfares
were built with road tunnels, but the huge traffic continues to stop regularly.
Large sums of money were also sacrificed on park sites and on - debated - the
overpainting of the revolutionary paintings, but Tehran is still heavily plagued
by air pollution, both due to traffic and the city's extensive industry.
Especially in the summer, the city is regularly covered by a thick quilt of
The construction of a metro network in the metropolis was already initiated
under the Shah, but the first line, to the suburb of Mehrsharh, first opened in
1999. The first subway opened in 2000.
From the 1800's. are preserved remains of the shaher's residential district in
the city center with the Golestan mansion as the main building. Immediately
south of this is the large bazaar. In the 1930's, the Danish engineering firm
Kampsax built Tehran's main railway station, while Jørn Utzon sm Hans Hans Munk
Hansen (b. 1929) designed a building for the Iranian National Bank (1959-62).
Among many museums, the most significant is the Archaeological Museum with
collections from prehistoric times to the 1800's.