Luxembourgish literature, literature of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg written in German, French and Luxembourgish (in the latter part of the country).
According to educationvv, many of their authors are native to all three languages, so the separation by language is problematic. The literature is most extensive in the German language.
Luxembourgish literature proper begins with the development of an independent national consciousness at the beginning of the 19th century; the first authors used v. a. the Luxembourgish language, as Michel Lentz (* 1820, † 1893) in his poems and Dicks (actually Edmond de la Fontaine, * 1823, † 1891) in his dialect theater, a kind of vaudeville theater. Michel Rodange (* 1827, † 1876) created “Renert” (1872), an adaptation of the Reineke-Fuchs material in Luxembourgish, a work that became the Luxembourgish national epic. Around 1850 a number of French and German works were created, such as the first French-language novel in Luxembourg literature, “Marc Bruno, profil d’artiste” (1855) by Félix Thyes (* 1830, † 1855). Most of the dramatic works were still written in Luxembourgish, including Amandrei Duchscher (* 1840, † 1911), Max Goergen (* 1893, † 1978) and others. continued Dick’s tradition here, while Marcel Reuland (* 1905, † 1956), Tit Schroeder (* 1911, † 1986) and Pol Greisch (* 1930) went their own way. Of the playwrights in German and French, Edmond Dune (* 1914, † 1988) was the only one to find international recognition. In recent times, the French language theater scene has been among others. by Marc Elter (* 1935, † 1996), Georges Érasme (actually Georges Muller), revitalized, in German-speaking theater are among others. Guy Rewenig (* 1947) and Guy Helminger (* 1963) productive, for the Luxembourgish language are among others. the socially critical pieces by Fernand Barnich (* 1939, † 2010) and the cabaret texts by Jhemp Hoscheit (* 1951) should be mentioned.
In narrative prose, Luxembourgish literature v. a. Short prose and short stories, but also novels produced. The German-language, artistically significant novellas and sketches by René Engelmann (* 1880, † 1915) were committed to the concept of naturalism. Periodicals and organizations contributed significantly to the revitalization of the literary scene after the First World War: the »Cahiers Luxembourgeois« founded in 1923 by Nicolas Ries (* 1876, † 1941) and the SELF founded in 1934 by Marcel Noppeney (* 1877, † 1966) (“Société des Écrivains Luxembourgeois de Langue Française”) and its bulletin “Pages de la SELF”. Noppeney was the dominant figure in Luxembourgish French-language literature in the first half of the 20th century; With “Le diable aux champs” (1936) and “Sens unique” (1940), Ries created novels that mirror the rural world. Batty Weber (* 1860, † 1940) is considered to be the first important representative of German-language narrative Luxembourgish literature. with the novel “Fenn Kass” (1913). As an educational novel, the novel trilogy “Adelheid François” (1936–38) by Johann Peter Erpeldings (* 1884, † 1977) reflects the Luxembourg milieu, as does the narrative prose by Paul Noesen (* 1891, † 1960). Anne Befforts (* 1880, † 1966) stand out among the French-language narrators, Ry Boissaux (* 1905, † 1986), Rosemarie Kieffer (* 1932, † 1994) and Jean Sorrente (* 1954). Other representatives of German-language prose include: Nikolaus Hein (* 1889, † 1969) and N. Jacques, whose novel »Dr. Mabuse, the player «became the most internationally known work of Luxembourg literature. Narrators from later generations include Joseph Funck (* 1902, † 1978), Nic Weber (* 1926, † 2013), Cornel Meder (* 1938), R. Manderscheid, who has also achieved recognition with his radio plays. Rewenig, already known as a playwright, created aphoristic short prose in Germanand Leopold Hoffmann (* 1915, † 2008), Lex Jacoby (* 1930, † 2015; “Logbook of the Arche”, 1988; “How not quite black carbon stone”, 2001) is a captivating novelist with an original art of design. The prose in Luxembourgish initially produced narratives, for example by Isidore Comes (* 1875, † 1960) “De neie Postmeeschter” (1930) and by Nikolaus Pletschette (* 1882, † 1965) “De Schousterpiitchen” (1956). It was not until around 1985 that the novel was also developed in Luxembourgish: here v. a. in Rewenig (“Hannert dem Atlantik”, 1985; “Gemeschte Chouer”, 1987; “Mass mat dräi Hären”, 1989), Manderscheid (“De papagei um käschtebam”, 1991) and Greisch (»Mäi Frënd Benn«, 2004). In French, Lambert Schlechter (* 1941) went among other things. with »Angle mort« (1988) new ways.
Poetry is the preferred genre in all three languages. In Luxembourgish, it has the character of folk poetry (e.g. in Auguste Liesch, * 1874, † 1949; Putty Stein, * 1888, † 1955). Even the poems written in German and French initially had a more or less conventional character: The versatile N. Welter, Paul Henkes (* 1898, † 1984), and Hein, who was already known as the narrator and who wrote in German and Luxembourgish, became known , further Gregor Stein (actually Pierre Grégoire, * 1907, † 1991), the French-language authors Noppeney and Paul Palgen (* 1883, † 1966). Dune, already mentioned as a playwright, is also significant as a lyricist. The work of Anise Koltz (* 1928), who writes in all three languages, is remarkable; by younger poets who z. Some of those who work with formal experiments are Jean Portante (* 1950), René Welter (* 1952), Anne Berger (* 1951) and Felix Molitor (* 1958) who also write in French, and the German-speaking authors Jean Klier (* 1949), Josiane Kartheiser (* 1950) and Georges Hausemer (* 1957, † 2018). One of the youngest representatives of Luxembourgish literature is the versatile Claudine Muno (* 1979) who writes in several languages.